Tuesday, 10 March 2015

FALAK SCIENCE AND ARITHMETICIAN

Arithmetic or astronomy, an old science, which is known to man, the nations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Babylon and China, sejab 20th century BC have known and studied astronomy this. known as astrology. According to the history, the division sepeken (week) over seven days, the presence dating back more than 5000 years ago

In the early part of its history, astronomy only observation and forecast movement of objects in the sky that can be seen with the naked eye. Then around the 12th century BC, and our country, astronomy has undergone many advances. they have been able to calculate when the occurrence of eclipses, and count the stars appeasement.


Around the 4th century BC, in the state of Greece which is in the golden age of science, astronomy has got a very important position and spacious.

In abab 2nd AD, an astronomer in Alexandria (Egypt) Greek descent, who named Claudius Ptolomeaus (90-168 AD) has been successful in gathering knowledge about the stars in a script called Tabril Magesthi. This text then spread throughout the world and used as a basis to guide subsequent astrology. Ptolomeaus argued, that the earth does not move and the earth surrounded by the sun, moon and other planets. Then, around the year 325 AD, the manuscript was expanded by Theodoseus Keizer in Rome and in the 9th century, it has copied the text into Arabic.

First Muslims actively involved in the field of astronomy at the time of Caliph Umaiyah. Famous astronomical figure was Khalid ibn Yazid Al-Amawi (died 85H / 704 M). He was known by the name of Marwan Ali Hakim.

At the time of the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaffar Al-Mansor (754-775) was the first caliph to give attention to the study of astronomy. Sire spend a lot of shopping for investigations in the field of astronomy, astronomy school founded in the city of Baghdad. Caliph himself included, including one of an astronomer. Under the reign of his successors, Harun al-Rashid and Al Mamun schools that produce important works, refurbished ancient theories, some errors corrected Ptolemy. The results of observations made by the school in Baghdad has been noted in the table is carefully examined.

At that time, the book of Greek astronomy books were translated into Arabic and followed up with studies that ultimately generate new theories. From this comes the reckoning figure among the Muslims who are very influential, namely Al-Khwarizmi with al-Mukhtasar Kitab fi al-Jabr wa Hisab al-muqabalah. This book greatly influenced the thinking of European intellectuals and later translated into Latin by Robert of Chester in the year 535 AH / 1140 AD under the title Liber et almucabala algebras, and in the year 1247 AH / 1831 AD translated into English by Frederic Rosen.

The development of astronomy studies developed in the caliph Al-Mansor. Attempt to translate the book Sdihanta from Sanskrit to Arabic done by Mohammad Al-Fazari later he was given the title of "Al-Sindhindin Al-Kabir". This book became the ultimate guide to the Arabs in studying astronomy to the time of al-Ma'mun.

Mohammad Al-Fazari are Muslims first create Astrolabe (sundial to measure the height and distance of the star). This book has been copied into Latin in the Middle Ages by Johannes de Luna Hispakusis. The translation of the book has been used by European universities to pursue Star Sciences. From this western people first found out objects on the horizon.

Figures Falak Islamic Studies in other Abbasid era is Abu Sahl ibn Naubakh, Ali ibn Isa, Thabit bin Qurrah, Al-Battani. At the time of al-Ma'mun also has established an observatory that is used to measure the power of sunlight. In his time also debuted astronomers measure the circumference of the earth at an observatory was established in Bukit Gaisun in Damsyek. In his time also observatory was also established at the Mount Qaisun. In Damascus. In his day has also been translated Alomagest bouquet of Ptolemy into Arabic. Islamic astronomers have also been observed equinoxes, eclipses, comet (comet) and others

In addition, Al-Battani (died about 930 AD / 317H) has conducted an investigation on astrology since the year 877 to 918M and books that have been copied into Latin, originally compiled in Arabic by Nallino (year-1903M). Al-Battani has divided the day into 12 hours which is used today by artisans hours in Europe. He also has been successfully calculated the same year with 356 days, 5 hours 46 current and 24 seconds.

Al-Battani occupied the highest place among the experts said star and its role among Muslims as to the role of Ptolemy among Jews. In the old days onwards born Islamic leaders who continue studies carried out by al-Battani and other figures and has produced various penemeuan in Science Falak.

Other figures who helped build and develop arithmetic, including:

  1. Abu Ma'syar al-Falaky (272 AH / 885 AD) wrote a book entitled Haiatul Falak.
  2. Abu Raihan al-Biruni (363-440 H / 973-1048 AD) who lived in the time of Sultan Mahmud al-Ghaznavids with his book Qanun al-Mas'udi, al-Athar al-Baqiah-kan which translated into English by Dr. Sachan
  3. Nasiruddin at-Tusi (598-673 AH / 1201-1274 AD) who lived in the days of King Mongol Hulagu Khan a landmark work with at-Tadzkirah fi 'Ilmi al-haiah,
  4. Abdurrahman Ibn Abu Al-Hussin Al Sufi (Sufi Ibn),
  5. Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Abu Yousouf al-Kindi (Al-Kindi),
  6. Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi (Al-Idrisi),
  7. Mohammad Shah Rukh Taraghay ibn as-Samarqondi (Ulugh Beg) (797-853 AH / 1394-1449 AD) who compiled Zij Sulthani.
  8. Umar al-Khayyam and Abdul Rahman al-Hazimi contemporaneous Turkish Seljuk Empire.

Monumental works are mostly still in the form of manuscripts and is now stored in Ma'had al-Makhtutat al-'Arabiy Cairo-Egypt.

From the figures of the Islamic arithmetic, and his fame is Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (770-840 AD), also known as Al-Khwarizmi. Scientists who made a large contribution in advancing the science was born in Khawarizm (Kheva), the town in the south of the river Oxus (now Uzbekistan) in the year 770 AD His parents later moved to a place in the south of Baghdad (Iraq), when he was a child . Al-Khwarizmi living during the Abbasid Caliphate descendants, namely Al-Ma'mun, who ruled in 813-833 AD He is memplopori manufacture Rubu 'al-Mujayyab developed by Ibn Shatir from Syria (11 th century).

Other Muslim astronomers were very instrumental in the discovery of trigonometry formula is Abul Wafa Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Ismail ibn Abbas al-Buzjani. He was born in Buzjan, Khurasan (Iran). Trigonometry is derived from the word trigonon = three angles and metro = measure. It is a branch of mathematics dealing with triangles and angles trigonomeri functions such as sine, cosine, and tangent.

Among a series of scholars and Muslim scientists, only 24 characters are immortalized in the craters of the moon and has received recognition from the International Astronomical Organization (IAU). The 24 Muslim leaders officially recognized as the name of lunar craters IAU gradually in the 20th century AD, between the years 1935, 1961, 1970 and 1976. The one Abul Wafa.

Mostly, Muslim scientists enshrined in the craters of the moon with the nickname West. Abul Wafa was one of the scientists who immortalized in the crater of the moon with its original name.

FIGURE FIGURE RECKONING INDONESIA

In the development of arithmetic are controlled by the scholars, including scholars of the archipelago. Many figures in the archipelago's reckoning that contributed greatly to the development of Indonesia's reckoning. Among these figures are:

  1. Sheikh Ahmad Khatib, born cleric Agam West Sumatra is a large contribution to develop the reckoning in Indonesia in 19-20 century AD His works are famous is al-Alam al-Hussab and Hussab and Raudhatul Hussab fi A'mali Ilmil Reckoning. He died in Mecca in the year 1334 AH / 1916 AD
  2. KH. Ahmad Badawi, Kuaman Yogyakarta, the author of the book Djadwal se-lama2nja Prayer Times and book Menghitoeng mode of reckoning Haqiqi Tahoen 1361 H, Hisab Haqiqi, and a lunar eclipse.
  3. KH. Mansur bin Abdul Hamid, Cleric reckoning born in Jakarta full name Muhammad Mansur ibn Abdul Hamid bin Damiri bin Abdul Muhid bin Hero Member Tjakra Jaya (Mataram, Java). His works of the renowned is Sulamun Nayyiraini and Mizanul 'Itidal. Both the book until now been studied in boarding boarding Salaf. Data Data in the book is still using the system Abajadun.
  4. Kyai Abu Hamdan Abdul Jalil al-Kudusi famous with his book Fathur Raufil Mannan.
  5. Alamuddin Sheikh Muhammad Yasin al-Padangy with his Muhtasarul Muhaddab.
  6. K.H. Zubair Umar Al-Jilani from Salatiga with the book Al-Khulashah Al-Wafiyah, Fii Al-Falakiy Bi Jadwaali Al-Lughoritmiyyah.
  7. KH. Ma'shum Ali, Seblak Jombang, Expert reckoning Maskumambang birth Gresik Ma'shum full name Muhammad bin Ali bin Abdul Jabbar Al-Maskumambangi. He works in arithmetic is Ad-Durus al-Falakiyah and Badi'atul mithal. Until now the two books were studied in Islamic schools Salaf.
  8. KH. Turaichan Adjhuri Ash-Syarofi, Kudus, Central Java, known for his holy tower dating.
  9. Saadoe'ddin Djambek, Expert reckoning of Minangkabau is famous for his book entitled 1. Time and Djadwal Popular Explanation Regarding Journey Earth, Moon and Sun. 2. Almanac Djamiliyah. 3. Comparison Tarich. 4. Guidance Prayer Times All Time. 5. Prayer and Fasting in the Polar regions. 6. Reckoning Beginning in Qamariyah.
  10. Wardan Diponingrat, K.R.T. Expert reckoning of Kauman Yogyakarta is famous for his book entitled Umdatul Hasib, Issues Hisab and Ru'jat In Determining The beginning of the Moon, Reckoning and Falak, and Hisab urfi and True.
  11. Muhammad Hasan al-Ash'ari Pasuruani with his Muntaha Nataijil Aqwal.
  12. KH. Moh. Kholil Blandongan Gresik with his Wasilatut Tullab
  13. KH. Abdul Fattah Kauman Gresik with his Mudzakkirotul Hisab
  14. KH. Romli Hasan Kemuteran Gresik with his treatise Falakiyah and dictation 'Falakiyyah
  15. Ridlwan Sedayu Gresik with his Taqribul Maqsud
  16. KH. KH. Noor Ahmad ibn Saryani Sadiq al-Jepara, Central Java with his book praises Nurul Anwar.
  17. KH. Zubair Abdul Karim of Bungah Gresik with his book Ittifaqu Dzatil Baini.
  18. KH. Achmad Ghozali, Sampang, Madura with coral Lanbulan his book: 1. Faidlul Karim, 2. Bughyatur Rofiq, 3. Anfa'ul Wasilah, 4. Irsyadul Pupil, Tsamarotul Fikar 5., 6. Taqyidat
  19. Etc


CLASSIFICATION HISAB

Broadly speaking reckoning calculations rukyat beginning of the month there are two, namely reckoning urfi and True.

Urfi reckoning based on calculating the average of the circulation of the Moon around the Earth. This urfi reckoning calculation is fixed, the age of the moon remains in every month except the month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Odd months; odd aged 30 days while the even-numbered months 29 days old. Thus months Romadlon as the ninth month (odd) of the Muslim lunar month forever be aged 30 days. So reckoning urfi can not be used to determine the beginning of the month Qomariyah syar'i

In other words urfi reckoning is not reckoning reckoning mathematical and astronomical. Included in this group is the Javanese calendar reckoning Sultan Agung of Mataram / Javanese calendar.

Urfi reckoning starts since the enactment of the caliph Umar ibn Khottob ra in the year 17 AH as a reference for the formulation of Islamic calendar.

Ultimate reckoning based on the calculation of the Earth's orbit around the moon and to consider the position of the moon / new moon which is actually against the horizon / horizon. Haqiqi reckoning is divided into 3 levels:

1. Hisab Haqiqi Taqribi.

2. Hisab Haqiqi Tahqiqi.

3. Hisab Haqiqi Tadqiqi / contemporary.


1. RECKONING HAQIQI TAQRIBI:

The method of calculating the position of the Moon based on the average motion of the Moon around the Earth, so the result is an estimate or closer to the truth (aproksi). Reckoning is mostly based on reference data is Zeij (astronomical tables) Ulugh Beik (1449 AD), which is based on the theory geocentric (earth as the center of the solar system). Scientifically this theory (geocentris) have fallen after Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543 AD) found the Heliocentric theory, that the center of the solar system is the sun and not the Earth, as was previously believed.

This method of calculation using only simple addition and subtraction and not using spherical triangle formula (spherical Trigonometry). The second new moon high calculation is only based on the current reckoning Maghrib reduced when Ijtimak then halved without considering the trajectory of the moon and the latitude of the place so that when the position of the moon away from the ecliptic does not match the reality on the ground earlier in the month when the new moon observation Hijrah.

Including taqribi haqiqi reckoning is:

Sullam an-Nayyiran by Muhammad Mansur ibn Abdul Hamid ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Habib Damiri bin Abdul Muhit Tjakra Jaya Hero Member bin Al-Batawi.
Fath ar-Rauf al-Mannan of Abu Hamdan Abdul Jalil bin Abdul Hamid al-Kudusi.
Al-Qawa'idul Falakiyyah works at-Thukhi Abdul Fattah al-Falaky Al-Misri
Ash-Syamsu wal Qamar Anwar bisexual husban works Kathir al-Malangi
Tadzkiratul Brotherhood works Kyai Dahlan al-Semarangi
Wasilatut Tullab works of KH. Kholil Blandongan Gresik
Risalatul Falakiyah work Romli Kyai Hasan Kemuteran Gresik
Jadawilul Falakiyyah KH. Qushayri al-Pasuani
Risalatul Qamarain work Kyai Muhammad Yunus al-Nawawi Kediri
Risalatu Syamsil Hilal KH. Noor Ahmad ibn al-Sadiq bin Saryani Jepara
Faidul Karim works KH. Ahmad Ghozali Lanbulan Sampang Madura
Etc

2. RECKONING HAQIQI TAHQIQI:

The method of calculating the position of the Moon based on the actual motion of the moon. In this method of calculation formula has been used kaedah triangular geometry ball or spherical Trigonometry so that the results are quite accurate. This method uses tables that have been corrected and the use of relatively more complicated calculation of Reckoning Tahqiqi Taqribi.

Calculation irtifa 'new moon (hilal high), this method has considered the value of the declination of the moon, when the moon and the angle of latitude of the place and corrected with Parallaks months, refraction, semi-diameter of the moon.

The books that fall into the category of Reckoning Haqiqi Tahqiqi as follows:

Mathla'us Sa'id Al-Hussain Sheikh Zaid works Egypt
Al-Manahijul Hamidiyyah work of Abdul Hamid Mursi Egypt
Al-Khulashatul Wafiyyah works K.H. Zubair Umar Al-Jilani Salatiga
Muntaha Nata'ijil Aqwal by Muhammad Hasan al-Ash'ari Pasuruani
Badi'atul mithal work of KH. Ma'shum Ali Seblak Jombang
Hisab Haqiqi Ki works depot Wardan Patrician
Holy tower works KH. Turaichan Adjhuri Ash-Syarofi
Ittifaqu Dzatil Bain works KH. Zubair Abdul Karim Bungah Gresik
Nurul Anwar works KH. Sadiq Noor Ahmad ibn al-Jepara Saryani
Pupils and Tsamarotul Fikar Irsyadul KH work. Ahmad Ghozali Lanbulan Sampang Madura
Etc

3. RECKONING HAQIQI TADQIQI / CONTENPORER

Also called reckoning beautiful / contemporary. The same calculation method of reckoning the reckoning Haqiqi Tahqiqi but already uses data up to date in accordance with the progress of science and technology.

Based modern astronomy with corrections and empirical data as well as delta T new (corrected figure) of research astronomers.

In calculating irtifa 'moon, this method has been incorporating elements of refraction (bending of light as the object approaches the horizon), Aberration (refraction), Dip (high angle changes due to the observer), humidity and wind speed.

As for the books / methods that fall into the category of Reckoning Haqiqi Tadqiqi or contemporary is as follows:

  1. Astronomical Algorithms, by Jean Meeus, Belgium
  2. Accurate Time works Moh. Odeh chairman ICOP
  3. VSOP87
  4. ELP2000
  5. EW Brown
  6. Nautical Almanac
  7. Staryy Night
  8. Ascript
  9. Astro Info
  10. Ephemeris Hisab Rukyah, by the Ministry of RI
  11. Early reckoning Month, by Sa'adoeddin Djambek, Jakarta
  12. New Comb, by Lamy, Yogyakarta
  13. Pupils Irsyadul KH work. Ahmad Ghozali Lanbulan Sampang Madura
  14. Al-Sadiq Falakiyah Sriyatin work
  15. Etc

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